French society : values and beliefs, etc... (#2)
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| Religion in France
||The French fight against
Religion is probably one the the major differences (if not the main one) between the USA and France.
In the USA, a very religious country, it is normal and natural
to express one's religious beliefs, when in France, it is considered
a private domain and the French society rejects any form of community
based on religion (communautarisme).
In the USA, all religions are
welcome and the general view is that any religious belief, even
unknown or strange, is the expression of a legitimate quest and
must be protected in the name of religious freedom.
In France too, religious
freedom is guaranteed by the Constitution and protected by
the Republic but it must remain strictly in the private domain
of the citizen : therefore, it is the duty of the Republic to
ensure that no dangerous sect could develop under the name of
religion and alienate people's liberty. It is therefore normal
for the society to protect itself with an anti-sect regulation
(see below) ; under this legislation,
The Church of Scientology, Reverend Moon Church and others are
illegal and many (Jehovah Witnesses, etc..) barely tolerated.
However, people in France
do stand for their religious beliefs if they think they are
threatened : in 1983-84, when the triumphant Socialist government
considered changing the law organizing private (religious) schools,
millions of people demonstrated in the streets and the government
withdrew its project. But this was a rare example of situation
where the church and the believers openly express their position
on a subject. They generally don't : see ethical
In French history, the
most important dates concerning religion are
- Baptism of Clovis 498, the first christian king
- Guerre des Religions 1562-1598 : a very cruel civil war,
with the Massacre (of Protestants) de la Saint Barthélémy
1572, which ended with a truce between Catholics and Protestants
- Révocation de l'Edit
de Nantes 1685 : King
Louis XIV revoked the truce, forcing the Huguenots to emigrate
to Holland, Germany and America
Separation of Church and State
: the 1905 Law is the basis of the French concept of "laïcité"
- Peyrefitte brillantly shows how the long history
of conflict between Catholicism and Protestantism explains the
major traits of French society (role of the state, attitude toward
money, responsibility vs. authority, etc...)
Europe, France is probably the country which is the most
attached to "laïcité" (secularity) (with
Portugal) but it is not the only one : in 2006, in the project
of European Constitution, a phrase in the preamble refering to
"the Christian roots of Europe" proposed by
some countries (like Poland) was refused by the others.
Contrary to most European countries,
where clergymen are often paid by the State, French churches
receive no money from the state (except in Alsac-Lorraine,
where the Germans kept the previous organization during the occupation
after 1870 and except for the maintenance of churches built before
1905 which all belong to local authorities). See European
compared situations. In the USA, churches receive a lot of money from the believers and tax exemptions from the State.
The French Constitution protects religious
freedom and acknowledges any religious belief
provided it respects the laws of the Republic ; it is largely
accepted in France that certain movements, identified as "sectes",
do not respect the liberty of their followers and are therefore
dangerous for them. The word "secte" is very pejorative
in French (it is like "cult").
To establish if a movement has
a "sectarian" profile and to what extent, the criterias
are of course difficult to specify and assess ; among them :
- Mental destabilisation
- Excessive financial demands
- Cut-off from personal environment
- Harm to physical integrity
- Indoctrination of children
- More or less anti-social declarations
- Perturbation of public order
- Numerous court cases
- Not involved in the economic
- Attempts to infiltrate public
A list of 172 sectarian movements
(totalizing 400,000 adepts) has been published ; among them the
most known are the Church of Scientology, Jehovah Witnesses,
Rael, Heavens Love, Reverend Moon, Transcendental Meditation
(maharishi). They are not considered like "religions"
and, if authorized, are considered (taxwise) as commercial activities.
For Scientology particularly, this tax treatment is of course
a major blow and in Jan.2012 it was sentenced to a half-million-dollar fine for fraud.
France has developed an entire
regulatory system to protect citizens against "sectes"
- Mission Interministérielle
de Vigilance contre less Dérives Sectaires (inter-office
agency to fight sects) established in the early 1990s to monitor
the anti-sect policy
- Parliamentary Report # 1687
on the financial situation and financial practices of sects (June
- Anti-sect Law (May 5, 2001)
including provisions allowing the dissolution of movements already
sentenced by a court for sectarian misconduct and legalizing
the crime of "mental manipulation"
- "Watchdogs such as info-sectes
- In October 2009, Scientology was sentenced to a heavy fine as a fraudulous organization (and not a church)
For most Americans, all the
above is an attack against religious freedom. For most of the
French (the law did not raise any significant controversy), this
is a protection of the society against cults which are dangerous
for their followers and abuse their weakness or credulity. Both
sides, French and Americans are probably equally convinced that
the other one is not defending freedom.
- More about religion.
|| Free-masonry in France
Illustrating how religious the
USA are, certain scenes are just unbelievable to French
eyes : typically, the President of the USA openly praying on
TV or the opening of a political Convention with a prayer.
In France, religious observance
is much lower than in the USA (less than 10% of Catholics go
to church regularly) and the the role of the church is much less
important in social and community life. Churches receive much
less money from believers. As opposed to the USA, people see
themselves primarily as French and secondarily as Christians
(or Muslims) : see figures.
Religious beliefs are part of
private life and, for this reason, it is illegal to collect
data about them in the census (read more about it). The answer to the question "Do
you consider you belong to a religion and which one?" is
(1999) : Catholic 54%, none 43%, Islam, Protestant and Jewish
around 1% each. This figure takes into account the feeling of
belonging to a religion. With a more neutral question ("In
which religion were you born?", INED 2005) the answers are
: Catholic 80%, Islam 5%, Protestantism 2%, Jewish 1%, No Religion
In France the Minister
of Interior's title is " Ministre de l'Intérieur
et des Cultes ". Part of his duty is to ensure the respect
of the principles of " laïcité
" (secularity), a key-concept
in France, with the official
representative bodies of the main religions :
Assemblée des Evêques (Catholic), Conseil Représentatif des
Institutions Juives de France (Jewish), Fédération
Protestante and recently Conseil Français du Culte Musulman
(Muslim). Other religions are considered
with caution and must demonstrate that they respect all French
laws. There is a regulation against "sects".
One of the major problems of Islam in France is probably that nobody and no institution are really legitimate to speak in the name of Islam. There are various bodies : they are not very visible and they do not agree among themselves (this is not the case with the other main religions) and some of those who are often seen on TV are not "moderate Muslims" (see Tariq Ramadan)
For the French, the prohibition
of the Islamic
veil in schools (2004) is NOT a law AGAINST religious
freedom, it is a law FOR religious freedom. It was approved by
a majority of French : see a poll.
In 2008, the HALDE (the French agency devoted to combating discrimination)
ruled that the burqa violates French values and inhibits integration
(NYT Oct.11, 2008). For President Nicolas Sarkozy, who addressed the Parliament in Versailles in June 2009, opposition to the burqa is not opposition to Muslims. "The burqa is not a religious sign; it is a sign of the subjugation, of the submission of women. I want to say solemnly that it will not be welcome on our territory." This is a non-partyisan issue in France : 82% of French respondents support a ban of full-face veils in public. The numbers are 71% in Germany, 62% in Britain, 59% in Spain and 28% in the USA (Source : Pew Global Attitudes Project 2010). Read my column about the US press reporting on the Burqa and read why opposing burqa is NOT a religious matter on Harriet's blog.
- More to come.....
Freedom of speech and religion
The murder of most of the editorial staff Charlie Hebdo in January 2015 (read about it) because the magazine had published a (very soft) caricature of Muhammad raises, of course, the question of freedom of speech. The concept is different in France from what Americans mean by freedom of speech :
- in the name of freedom of speech, it is never illegal to attack a religion and blasphemy is not an offense ; the Muslims forbid any representation of their prophet but not the French law
- but : any attack on a person about his/her religious beliefs or his/her racial or national origin can be prosecuted (since 1881) on the ground of "incitation à la haine raciale" (incitement to racial hatred).
In short : you may criticize or make fun of any idea but you must be careful if you criticize or mock a person. Unless the Prophet himself sues the magazine (which is quite unlikely ...), the caricatures of Muhammad can be published in France.
In the eyes of many, freemasonry is a closed and secretive organisation with little relevance to modern society. On the contrary, it is by taking a step back from the outside world that its members meet, discuss and reflect on human values in modern society, sheltered from profit- and power-driven influences. This process favours personal growth through the better understanding of oneself, others and human society.
Although all freemasons in the world share a philanthropic outlook, in reality there are different forms of freemasonry, some of which, mainly outside the UK, are proactively committed to the improvement of society along humanist and secular principles. From this perspective, the aim of freemasonry is to help individuals become better citizens of society and of humanity, and to achieve a freer, fairer and more human society.
- The Grand Orient de France is the oldest and largest Masonic Order on mainland Europe. Created in 1728 as the Premiere (First) Grande Loge de France, it acquired its current name and status in 1773. It represents around 1.400 lodges in France (and one in Britain, in London, working in English : read about it).
DID YOU KNOW
THAT ? In France, a symbol of religious intolerance is
the story of the Chevalier (knight) de La Barre (1747-1766).
He refused to remove his hat when crossing a procession and was
sentenced to have his tongue cut out and to be burnt alive. By
special leniency of the Parliament of Paris, he was only (!)
beheaded. Voltaire fought for his memory and made his fate a
symbol of religious intolerance. If you go to Montmartre you
will see his name : the street leading to the top of the hill
is the Rue du Chevalier de La Barre.
Free-masonry is another big
difference between France and the USA. Contrary to English
and American free-masonry, it has in France, very specific characteristics:
It is more divided between several
rival organizations (see detail) and it is growing
It is less religious : most
of them do not demand to believe in the existence of a god (of
course you may but you do not have to)
For the latter reason, these
organizations are not ackowledged by the Great United
Lodge of England and therefore most French masons cannot attend
ceremonies in Anglo-Saxon lodges (the reverse is not true and
Anglo-Saxon masons are welcome to French lodges : who is the
most respectful of religious freedom ?).
Free-masonry in France is split
among several organizations ("obédiences")
Grande Loge de France (G.L.F.)
: approx 27,000 (men) members, deist
Grande Loge Féminine
de France (G.L.F.F.) : 12,000 (women) members, very traditionalist
Droit Humain (D.H.) : approx
16,000 (men and women) members, close to GODF
Grande Loge Nationale Française
(G.L.N.F.) : approx. 33,000 members, the only one acknowledged
by the Great United Lodge of England
Grand Orient de France (G.O.D.F.)
: approx 50,000 (mostly men) members, very non-religious (" laïc "), split
from English masonry in 1877
And several smaller organizations
(Grande Loge Traditionnelle et Symbolique Opera, Grande Loge
Feminine Memphis-Misraim, Grande Loge Nationale Française,
Grande Loge Mixte Universelle,...).
Lafayette (G.O.D.F.), Paris (credit)
The history of French
free-masonry in a nutshell : many actors of the French Revolution
were masons, masonry was instrumental for most of the major moves
of the XIXth century : abolition of slavery, universal suffrage,
free education, a secular state, etc... A century ago most left-wing
politicians were masons. More recently, it was decisive in the
abolition of the death penalty and the lagalization of abortion.
During the occupation of France by the nazis, free-masons were
persecuted like the Jews and the communists. Today, their influence
is not negligible but is generally over-estimated.
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Rochefort writes articles and books about France and the French.
Order her books :
- "Joie de Vivre", Secrets of Wining, Dining and Romancing like the French, St.Martin's Press, New York, 2012
- "French Toast, An American in Paris
Celebrates The Maddening Mysteries of the French", St.Martin's Press,
New York, 1999
- "French Fried, The Culinary Capers
of An American in Paris", St.Martin's Press, New York, 2001
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