| Some facts about politics
||Strange (for Americans)
concepts in French politics and society
According to its constitution
(Article 1) "La France est une république indivisible,
laïque, démocratique et sociale" (France
is a republic, indivisible, secular, democratic and social).
national parties are
: PS (Socialist Party), UMP (Right Wing), Modem (Christian
Democrat), each of them counting between 15 and 25% of the votes,
FN (Extreme Right National Front), around 5%, and various others
around 5% (Communist,
Ecologists, Extreme-Left, including CNPT Chasse-Pêche-Nature et Tradition,
the party of people who oppose European regulation on hunting
etc...). Read about the financing of political parties in France. More about French political forces.
As in most democratic countries the political power is represented by a majority and an opposition which represent almost the same proportion of voters (a score of 55% is a landslide) : they are identified as "gauche" (left wing) and "droite" (right wing). Local elections are important, and do not always give the majority to the same party as the national elections do.
France has the highest number of local authorities in Europe (more than 37,000, not including the
structures they form between themselves) and therefore has a
very active local political life with more than 500,000 elected
officials. Of course, local communities are small and therefore
the political system is very centralized with a strong central
state but one can say that the local authority and its city council
are the core of French democracy. In a city or a village, whatever
its size, the mayor is always the most important political figure.
Read more about the various
layers of structure between the citizen and the State.
In France, unlike the USA, the
majority of national politicians are civil
servants (often high-ranking)
; the majority of the cabinet members and a very large number
of parliament members graduated from the same prestigious school
: Ecole Nationale d'Administration (ENA).
In 2007, it was considered very unusual when the President was
not. It is not exaggerated to say that they are often cut off
from real life : read about the 2005
are heavily under-represented in French political life (maybe
this why it is so often ridiculous...) : see comparative
The French love politics and
they believe that the first thing you must do in a democracy
is to vote : voter participation is very high (almost 86% in the 2007
and they are shocked by the low figure in the USA. They believe
in what Pericles said : "a citizen who is not involved
in politics is not a quiet citzen, he is a useless citizen"
! Elections always take place on Sundays and (except for European
elections) are two-round elections.
DID YOU KNOW
THAT.... Stanley Hoffmann has observed that France and the United
States are both nations that see themselves as having a universalizing, civilizing mission and this is one the reasons of their
rivalry (quoted by Timothy Garton Ash in an excellent article,
Anti-Europeanism in America, The New York Review, Feb. 13, 2003).
Mort Rosenblum gives a very good picture of this largely shared
French vision in "Mission to Civilize" .
Amnesty : in France,
the president can pardon any offense (droit de grâce),
as the kings could do : he uses it very rarely on a case by case
basis but it is a tradition that a new-elected president pardons
a whole set of offences, from parking tickets to prison ; one
of his first decisions is to propose to the Parliament a law
to establish which offences will be automatically pardoned, fines
forgotten and prisoners released... In 2007, Nicolas Sarkozy,
who said in his campaign that he was against it, was the first
president to break with this "tradition". American
presidents also have a constitutional right to pardon, but they
don't use it for parking tickets....
ATTAC is an association
which was founded in the 1990s to promote the idea of a global
tax on financial transactions (" Tobin Tax "). It has
around 20,000 members and is quite influential among high-school
teachers and more generally " altermondialiste
" militants. Its members are strongly against market economy
and anti-American. Its vice-president is Susan George, an American
academic living in France.
Avantages acquis (irrevocable
benefits) : a classical issue in labor disputes and political
debates ; once any kind of advantage has been granted, it is
considered unthinkable to suppress it, whatever the circumstances
and the situation ; reducing salaries or increasing labor time
may happen but is extremely rare in France and it raises huge
controversies ; there is almost no example of workers accepting
cuts in wages and unions refuse to sign any agreement of this
kind : they prefer unemployment and the protection of the State.
See what happened when the government decided to suppress the
holiday to fund a social program. See a French paycheck
and read my personal opinion about the 35-hour
Bipartisan is a concept which
hardly exists in France (the word does not even exist). Politics
is a war and you do not cooperate with your enemy. This is why
the opposition always votes AGAINST the proposal of the majority,
even when it fully approves it (ex. : the 2008 vote of the Left
against modifications of the Constitution which were almost totally
based on its own proposals) ; in the extreme case where a "no"
vote would be impossible to understand by its voters, the opposition
does not vote and abstains (ex. : the 2008 financial plan to
rescue banks like in all other European countries). In 2007,
newly elected (right-wing) President Sarkozy appointed to his
government several leaders of the Socialist party (including
Bernard Kouchner, Minister
of Foreign Affairs, Jean-Marie Bockel Minister of Overseas Territories
and Francophonia) : they were excluded by their own Party ; he
appointed Minister of Urban Policy Fadela Amara, who had founded
a very influential Left-wing movement for the promotion of women
of foreign origin (of which she is one) : she is considered a
traitor. In French politics, you NEVER congratulate and wish
good luck to your opponent if you lose (speeches like McCain's
in 2008 are unthinkable) and when you leave office, you destroy
as much paper and documents as you legally can (I have personnaly
witnessed that). Nothing to be proud of.... See more examples
of sectarianism and lack
of fair-play in French political life.
The French are very fond of national politics : if you watch the Evening News on a national
TV channel (at 8 p.m.), you will be surprised by the number of
reports and interviews. Read about the 2007 Presidential
You will be surprised also by the fact that the French love general ideas and are bored by practical matters : in a national debate, they will talk about "changer la vie" i.e. "change life" (Mitterrand 1981) or "réenchanter le rêve" i.e. "re-enchant the dream" (Hollande 2012) but rarely about taxes or entrepreneurship. Too down to earth. Read also about French economic illiteracy.
Politics is a fight and when you win, you win everything
: you are on one side or the other and non-partisan
votes do not exist ; "checks and balances" has
no translation in French. See more about the reasons why the
French do not
like change and prefer revolutions.
issue today is that the political tradition in France (where people
like general ideas and adore conflicts) is challenged by European
homogenization of political life : like other European countries,
the French are trying to keep their specificity but the growing
European power reduces their capacity to develop a specific policy
(foreign policy, taxes, economic regulation, ...). See the reasons
to vote Yes/No to the 2005 referendum about the European
- More typical French political issues
- See the results of the 2012 Presidential elections, with the score and the mottos of the 10 candidates (and the most incredible promises and statements...)
- See an interesting blog
by a US academic about French politics
Cohabitation is the situation in which the President
must appoint a prime Minister who does not belong to his political
side because the majority has changed. It is possible within
the constitution but it is much too frequent (Mitterrand / Chirac,
Mitterrand / Balladur, Chirac / Jospin,..) and it weakens the
French governments (which do not need this additional contradiction).
A strong President should dissolve the National Assembly or resign
(as de Gaulle did).
Cumul des mandats (plurality of mandates) : the number
of political mandates that can be held at the same time is always
a surprise to foreign observers. Almost all members of the Parliament
(deputies or senators) are also mayor and/or, president of a region
or of a "département" (county). The French consider
that you cannot be a good law-maker if you don't know real
life and you cannot be a good local politician if you don't have
friends in Paris. In 2010, only 77 deputies (out of 577) and 90 senators (out of 343) have only this mandate. Voters prefer to elect someone who has good connections rather than someone solely dedicated to a job : another example of preferring relationship to procedures.
et Gauche (Left and Right) : the French adore ideological
disputes and the concept of Right versus Left means a lot to
them ; a Right wing government would not survive the accusation
of being driven by values from the Left and conversely. In the
USA, one could say that the right-wing considers itself entitled
to say what is good/right and what is bad/wrong ; in France this
could apply to the left-wing. A partial explanation could be
that in France, for moral standards, the equivalent of religion
(as in the US) is the socialist philosophy. This is certainly
a little exaggerated but possibly not groundless. Read an excellent
book by Ronald Tiersky and
visit the section on attitudes) and
beware of "faux-amis" : in French a "libéral"
is someone who is for free enterprise and market economy and
the "radical socialiste" party is a center-right
political party. More about French political parties.
| Strikes and strikers
Striking and demonstrating are
strong local traditions in France. There are strikes for many
reasons (local, national, sectorial) but they are, in fact, targeted
against the State to press it to do something to address a problem.
The French do not value consensus and do not negotiate unless
under pressure : the classical sequence is to go on strike first
and then negotiate...
Most of the strikes concern
state-owned companies (train, urban transit, utilities, hospitals,
air controllers, etc). Sometimes, they are just ritual: you can
expect a transport strike every year in the fall. They also go
on strike "on behalf" of the other categories :
in Spring 2003, there were huge transport strikes, when the transport
sector was not concerned by the Government's project on retirement age.
Actually, the total number of
strike days is low
in France (and below the European average : 37 compared to 43
days/1000 workers, see detailed
figures) but they concern mostly the transport sector ; the
French tolerate them surprisingly well and, to some extent, they
are considered by many as a vicarious way of going on strike.
Read why it is consistent with the way Economics is taught in High School.
A typical (non transport) strike
was the Summer 2003 strike of the " intermittents du spectacles
". It concerned all the categories which contribute to show
business : technicians, musicians, actors, etc : unhappy with
the recent re-renegotiation of their labor contract, they forced
cities to cancel most Summer festivals all over the country;
frustrated tourists then complained to the cities, who in turn
demanded the State to intervene in this labor dispute !
A few examples :
The strike of students against
a C.P.E. (a new job contract aimed at helping young people to
get their first job) : see a tentative
explanation of this typical French social crisis.
examples of typically French strikes (fishermen blocking
harbors, electricity workers cutting power to hundreds of government
officials' homes) and read about strikes in Paris
Diary. See an impressive list
of strikes and demonstrations taking place at any time in
France (in this example : Spring 2005).
- In 2010, the French football team
went on a sort of strike two days before its last (lost) game. Read my column about it.
In October 2004, the French
Railway Company (SNCF) and the six major unions signed an agreement
which is considered a major progress in labor relations : unions
agreed that they would not go on strike BEFORE having started
a discussion (instead of the traditional strategy : "first
strike then negotiate"). Looks strange, doesn't it ?
Another surprising fact : almost
always, at least in the public sector, after a strike, part of
the settlement agreement concerns the payment of salary for
the days of strike, which are very often actually paid, at
least partly. In 2003, the government refused to pay after several
weeks of a national strike by the teachers. It was the first time
and it dealt a severe blow to the strikers who did not expect such a tough
Demonstrations : marching in the streets...
In addition to strikes, marching in the streets is also considered a constitutional right and the only obligation is to declare it in advance and agree on the route of the march. Very few marches are forbidden (28 in 2013) and the number of demonstrations is amazing : according to official sources (Préfecture de Police), the number of authorized demontrations in Paris was 4,411 in 2013 (plus : 730 un-authorized).
They represented more than 11 milion people marching in the streets! Paris demonstrators have always been considered a threat by the government and Napoleon said "I am more worried about a cold in Paris that about an epidemic in a region".
In Paris, a traditional demonstration (against the government's policy, for the Dalaï Lama or against something somewhere) follows these steps : the Prefecture de Police is informed and gives the authorization (99,99% of the time), TV channels and newspapers talk extensively about it so nobody can miss it ; if it's a big one, demonstrators walk from Place de la République to Place de la Bastille (you see the symbol?) or reverse, at the end of the demonstration, a few hundred thugs burn cars, burn a few shops and throw stones or Molotov cocktails at the cops, and all ends in a big fight. The next day, the Ministry of Interior announces that there were 50.000 demonstrators, 50 cops injured and 200 thugs arrested. Those who organized the demonstration claim 457.856 peaceful demonstrators, 574 of them having been savagely attacked by drunk cops who did not hesitate to set fire to the shops. They announce a demonstration the next day against violence by police forces and to free innocent students
arbitrarily put in custody, etc.. It is so repetitive that it is boring.....
"Street-democracy" : after a law has been passed by the (democratically-elected) parliament, it is considered absolutely democratic to march in the streets and demand its abrogation....
YOU KNOW THAT.....? In France, you can go on strike for free ! After the negotiation that ends each strike, one of labor's
demand is always the full payment of salaries for the days of
strike. It is generally accepted, at least partly, and almost
always totally in the public sector. In Spring 2003, there were
huge strikes of teachers (several weeks) against the decision
to set at the same level the number of years of work which qualify
for a full pension in the public sector (then 37,5 years) and
in the private sector (40 years) : the government did not change
its project and it was considered an unprecedented and shameful
decision when it decided to pay only a minor part of the salary
for non-worked days. For the first time, teachers, who go on
strike several times a year, had lost income significantly.
DID YOU KNOW THAT.......? The award of "The Most Stupid Political Statement" is held by Fouquier-Tinville, president of the Revolutionary Tribunal in 1794 who is said to have answered "The Republic does not need scientists" in response to the illustrious chemist Lavoisier, who, to save his head, pleaded that he was a highly regarded scientist and needed some time to finish some of his research.
Elections : some technical aspects make French elections
impossible to understand from abroad : among them "elections
à deux tours", elections at different levels
which give the impression that the country is constantly in a
political campaign (élections municipales for mayors
and city councils, élections départementales
for county representatives, élections régionales
for regional representatives, élections législatives
for deputies, élections sénatoriales for
senators, élections européennes for the
European parliament, élections présidentielles),
"cohabitation" (when the president must
appoint a government with totally opposed ideas), "cumul
des mandats" (the same person can have up to three
of the above-mentioned mandates, for instance député-maire
or conseiller régional-député européen,
etc). Read an article by Harriet Welty about how the French
view the American voting system and a Paris Diary page about
the 2005 referendum
on the European Constitution.
: France is persistently
trying to structure an international organisation around the
50 countries or so where French is the first language, mostly
in Africa ; American diplomacy hates everything about this ;
the colonial past is still very present in France and the relations
with former colonies are close ; the French had a vision of colonization
which was very different for instance from the British's ; Mort
Rosenblum, former AP bureau chief in Paris, wrote a very clear-sighted
book about it ("Mission
to Civilize") ; read about the French and their language and see figures about overseas
Gaullisme : the modern form of an old tradition
in French political life : a powerful state, a republican but
strong leader and a rather nationalist foreign policy ; an archaic
form is " bonapartisme " which still exists (in Corsica
!) ; it is somehow linked with a deeply rooted vision of political
life called " jacobinisme " which dates back to the
French Revolution (with Robespierre), representing the centralizing
vision as opposed to the decentralized idea of France, "
Girondisme ". Read more about de
Laïcité (secularism) : Most Americans do not understand it : in France, you do
not mix religion and society. It is a private domain and no
candidate for any public function would ever mention his religious
belief, the name of God, etc ; it is absolutely unthinkable that
a French president would express his religious beliefs the way
US presidents do (particularly George W. Bush) ; at social occasions
(dinner party, etc..), it would be considered very rude to start
a discussion about God and religion, unless a very light and
careful one ; the role of the church in social life is extremely
limited compared to the U.S.A. Globally speaking, France is a
country much less religious than the USA which does not mean that people have no religious
beliefs, but they are strictly a personal
choice. "Laïcité" does not mean that
the state is against
religion, but it means that it must guarantee
that all religious beliefs are treated equally, including having
no religious belief. An illustration of that is the Sunday morning
program on France-2 (state-owned TV channel, around 30% of total
viewers) : between 8:30 am and 12h30, there is a mass and various
programs by all religions and philosophical opinions (Protestant, Islam, Jewish, Free Masons, Atheist,
you name it...).
One can say that "laïcité"
is a value which shared by a huge majority of the French, whatever
their religion. This is why the Islamic
veil in school caused an almost unanimous scandal. The milestone
is the 1905-law of separation of church and state : since that
date, all religious buildings belong to the local authorities
or to the state (which must maintain them), no member of the
clergy can be appointed and paid by public funds (except in Alsace,
where the system is the German system), etc...
are largely agreed upon in the French society (see a poll)
but many Americans strongly disagree with them. Even French Muslims
are progressively absorbing the secular ways of their countrymen
: see a European
comparative study. As an example of the permanent monitoring
of "laïcité" by French governments, one
could mention the creation (Decree March 25, 2007) of an "Observatoire
de la Laïcité", a permanent commission including
members of the Parliament and highlty respected personalities,
which will report to the Prime Minister and monitor the "respect
of secularism in public services". However, in the name
of "religious freedom", many French Muslims make the
headlines of newspapers with infringements
on secularism : see a few examples. More about religion and compared situations in Europe.
Read a letter about freedom in schools and my personal
view about it.
Lying is no big deal in French politics : from Bernard Tapie who said in court "I lied, but it was in good faith" in the 1990s to Jerome Cahuzac,than MInister of Budget and therefore in charge of the French IRS, who said in front of the whole National Assembly "I have not and I never had a foreign bank account" (when it was established two weeks later that he had) in 2013, example are innumerable. Do you kow that, according the French law and "in order to protect democracy", no member of the parliament can be taken to court for anytrhing he/she said in the Parliament and perjury is not a crime ? Read about the Minister of Justice lying openly on TV. This is true also in business, where only what is written is really binding : lying orally does not count....
Their situation in France gives a good idea
of how " blocked " the French society is :
The proportion of workers who
are members of a labor union is the lowest in Europe.
They are weak : the %
of workers belonging to a union is below 10%, one of the lowest
% in Europe and they are split between several rival organizations
; they are extremely weak in the private sector and relatively
strong in the public sector (see more
They are conservative
: the master concept is "avantages
acquis", especially in the public sector (see about
the difference with the private sector)
They are not efficient :
they do not try to cooperate between themselves to obtain better
results : for corporations, they are easy to cope with
They are irresponsible
and would not, at any price, give up a demonstration or a strike,
whatever their economic or political impact : three recent examples
in May 2006 : the "Syndicat
des Travailleurs Corses" and Syndicat Force Ouvrière
(FO) blocked the two gasoline depots of Corsica for 5
weeks because the delivery people of the newspaper Nice-matin
could not reach an agreement on salaries with their company.
No way to buy gas on the island...
- in 2003, Marseille was
competing with Valencia for the organization of the America Cup
(sailing) : during the visit of the Committee in charge of designating
the best site, there was a huge strike of garbage collectors
with piles of trash and rats running in the streets : unions
refused to stop the strike. Marseille is by far the dirtiest city
in France, with garbage bags everywhere on the streets, waste
papers flying around, etc. It is famous for the constant strikes
of the employees of the city's garbage collection service. These
employees enjoy a unique privilege in their job contract, the
" fini-parti " (literally : " done-gone ")
: as soon as their job is finished, they can go back home (or
to their more lucrative undeclared job). I saw a subject on national
TV with a hidden camera showing a garbage truck racing through
the streets, the team throwing garbage in it (half of it ending
on the pavement) and finishing their shift in two hours (instead
of six). When you talk about that to a "Marseillais",
he/she sighs and says " That's the way it is ....".
- in March 2005, when the Commission
of Evaluation of the International Olympic Committee visited
the 5 candidate cities, a major public transport strike was planned
in Paris : one organization (CFDT) proposed to postpone
it and all the others refused!
There was a strike and the city was a mess. The (Socialist) Mayor of Paris declared : "This strike will not jeopardize the French candidacy : it will show that we are a real democracy".
Isn't that cynical ?
In September 2005 : Corsica
was blocked and a
ferry hijacked to oppose the privatization of SNCM, the bankruped
ferry company. Read Paris
Diary about it.
It is a largely shared view,
including in business circles, that the French society would
benefit from stronger and more responsible labor unions.
- More to come...
Some original forms of strike
- In March 2006, Jean Lassalle,
a deputy from the mountainous Pyrénées region,
went on a five-week hunger strike in the main hall of the
National Assembly because the Japanese group Toyal, the only
employer in his valley, was planning to move its plant to Lacq
(50 miles away). Although quite controversial, this strike proved
successful : the government heavily subsidized Toyal to maintain
the plant in this remote valley.
- More to come
"Modèle social français" : everybody on the Left and many people on the Right are very
attached to what they call the French "modèle social"
(social model) ; for them, it means free or moderately priced
"services publics" (see below) such as health
and education, a higher compensation
for unemployed people, a minimum income for all (see RMI), some prices depending on income, etc...
Although very questionable now, this issue was decisive in the
2005 referendum on Europe : millions voted NO to protect the
French society against what they considered a threat to the "modèle
social" by "the heartless Anglo-Saxon market economy". See a few examples, some good, others less so..
in France, you can run and be defeated several times and run
again, and be elected when you are 65 or over. In 2005,
a 50-year-old voter has never voted in a presidential election
in which Jacques Chirac was NOT a candidate (he became a member
of the government for the first time in 1967). You can also be
re-elected after having been sentenced for corruption!
Partenaires sociaux means both workers unions and employers associations : the concept is that, according to French labor laws, they MUST meet on a regular basis at the level of the firm as well as at a national level to negotiate and/or update the national framework of labor contracts and its local implementation, manage on a "paritaire" basis (i.e. joint, with equal representation on both sides) all collective social benefits (health care system, pension system, unemployment system). The national framework of labor contacts is based on the sanctified concept of "CDI" (contrat à duree indéterminee i.e. unlimited employment contract), which is the general case or "CDD" (contrat à duree déterminee, i.e. contract with a predetermined duration) which is the exception and considered a second-rate contract. With a CDI, you can be fired only in case of a heavy misbehavior on your side ("faute lourde") or the inability of the firm to keep you ("licenciement economique", strictly regulated). You cannot be dismissed just because your work is not good. The Labor Code is approximately 3.000 pages thick, therefore, these explanation can only give you a hint of its complexity.
Privileges : One of the most famous dates of the French Revolution is the "Nuit du 4 Aout". Two weeks after the storming of the Bastille, on August 4, 1789, the "Assemblee Constituante" (National Assembly) decided, in an extraordinary competition of sacrifices, to give away the traditional privileges of the higher classes. The representatives of the nobility and of the church abandoned their exemption of taxes, the nobility abandoned the monopoly of the officer grades in the army and pensions with no corresponding service, the church abandoned its privileges etc. This was one the most spectacular days of the whole Revolution. More than two centuries later, hundreds of other privileges have been systematically built. They are called "avantages acquis" (acquired benefits) and "niches fiscales" (tax niches).
- "Avantages acquis" are the benefits attributed (mostly in the public sector) like free or almost free services for the employees of major public utilities such as electricity or transport but their variety and their extension is extraordinary. As an example, employees of SNCF (State railways) travel for free on trains but their (extended) family too : the total number of beneficiaries has been evaluated officially at 1.1 million and the total cost at more than 100 million Euros ($140m.) (Source : Cour des Comptes, Annual Report 2014). Read more about it.
- "Niches fiscales" : there are several hundreds of tax breaks and tax deductions for an incredible variety of tax-payers. As an example, journalists benefit from a $10.000 tax break in addition to all other legal tax breaks. Read more about it.
The RMI (" Revenu minimum d'insertion " : minimum
income for a return to activity) is an allocation which is attributed
to anybody (over age 25), French or not, who does not work and
who does not qualify for a program for the jobless (for instance
people who never had a job or people incapable of working). The
number of beneficiaries is above 1,2 million (2007). Its amount
is around 450 Euros/month ($ 675). People who receive RMI also
receive many additional benefits and gratuities (free public
transport, health coverage CMU,
housing allocation, etc). The RMI is financed by the "département
" (see the territorial
organization of France). The number of frauds seems to be
high. In 2009, the RMI was replaced by the RSA (Revenu de Solidarité Active), more efficient and fair (you don't lose it immediately if you resume working).
Public ": when a Frenchman says he/she wants to
defend the "Service Public" (public services), he/she
has said everything. For him, it means that a state-owned and/or
state-run service will not try to maximize profit but to maximize
the quantity or the quality of service provided: therefore, when
RATP workers (the Paris transit system) go on strike to demand
to lower the age of retirement (already 50!), Parisians who must
walk to their work support them in spite of the hassle! In France,
it is a very esteemed position to be a "fonctionnaire".
Still, it is a fact that the quality of " Services
Publics " in France is much higher than in the USA (train,
urban transit, etc). For the French, the state-owned TV channels
"service public" are expected to be better, less vulgar,
less devoted only to entertainment and commercials (and, indeed,
Trotskisme : a surprisingly strong political vision in extreme-left
political life with 10% of votes with 3 different candidates,
in the 2002 presidential election (Lutte
Communiste Révolutionnaire, Parti des Travailleurs)
; since the Socialist Party came back to power with François
Mitterrand in the 1980s, the extreme left is progressing and
represents the refusal of any compromise with the existing society.
Having been persecuted by Stalin gives theses organizations a
sort of label of honorability and as they refuse to participate
in any democratic local or national power nobody can reproach
them for having betrayed the ideal perspective of the glorious Proletarian
Revolution. France is the only democratic country with these kind
of movements alive and well and many proeminent French politicians have de "Trotskyist background" (L.Jospin, JL.Melenchon, P.Moscovici ro name a few). Why ? I see two reasons for that, both consistent with what the French value the most. First : they prefer theory to action and Trotsky was an intellectual, as opposed to Lenin and Stalin who were pragmatic. Second : they prefer a valiant loser to a boring winner and Trotsky was defated by Stalin who finally killed him.
- More to come
|To related pages : religion
(#2), to French politics, to more about French society (#3), to French profiles
(#4), French institutions (#5), French attitudes,
French issues, etc...
To top of the
Back to home
Rochefort writes articles and books about France and the French.
Order her books :
- "Joie de Vivre", Secrets of Wining, Dining and Romancing like the French, St.Martin's Press, New York, 2012
- "French Toast, An American in Paris
Celebrates The Maddening Mysteries of the French", St.Martin's Press,
New York, 1999
- "French Fried, The Culinary Capers
of An American in Paris", St.Martin's Press, New York, 2001
More on Harriet's
(excerpts, upcoming events, testimonials, etc..)
and on speeches by Harriet and/or by Philippe Rochefort
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