|| In European countries
|WARNING! In this page (still under construction) I try to list some of the key issues, in French political life. Maybe I'm wrong, maybe I'm prejudiced : it is only my opinion!
- First issue : can the French understand that they are not alone in the world ?
- Typically, in French political life, Europe is only an exterior entity, trying to impose rules that we are free to accept or not
- More to come
- Second issue : can a Left Wing government rule the country without making major mistakes ?
- The French Socialist Party refuses to give up its old marxist tradition (as the German SPD did in 1959 at Bad-Godesberg) : even when reasonable Socialists know perfectly well that some decisions are based on old (an absurd) marxist principles, they do not dare being unfaithful to them (examples : huge nationalizations in 1981, 35-hour work week in 1998, refusing to support the reform of the pension system today, etc...)
- More to come
DID YOU KNOW THAT....? People who support the Left Wing and radical ideas although they are very well-off, and sometimes billionaires, are called the "Gauche Caviar" (caviar left).Typical members of it are Pierre Bergé (who owns Saint-Laurent), Bernard-Henry Lévy, Philippe Sollers, and many others.
French polical forces
- In France, political forces are not extremely different from what they are in other European countries but there are three important national specificities, all grounded in history. The first on is the importance of Marxist philosophy on the whole French political Left, the second is the quasi-absence of any political expression of religion (see : laicité) and the third is the large agreement on the necessary role of the State, both on the Left and on the Right (see : Bonapartisme).
- Political forces are rather stable over a long period of time, although they take different names. The French vote is divided into :
- extremist parties, very small, on both sides, with less than 5% each : today Lutte Ouvrière (Olivier Besancenot), Ligue Communiste Révolutionnaire, etc... (see : Trotskism)
- a significant openly Marxist Left (10 to 15%), today Parti Communiste, La Gauche (Jean Luc Melanchon)
- an important Socialist Party (20 to 25%) which does not dare to do what other European Socialist Parties did when they openly abandonned any Marxist reference and called themselves Social-Democrats, today Parti Socialiste (François Hollande, Martine Aubry, SegoleneRoyal, Dominique Strauss-Kahn,...)
- one or several Ecologist parties (5 to 15%), today Europe Ecologie-Les Verts (Daniel Cohn-Bendit)
- one or several Center parties (5 to 15%), today Modem (François Bayrou)
- an important Center Right party (15 to 25%), today UMP (President Nicolas Sarkozy)
- a (growing) extreme Right party (10 to 20%), today Front National (Marine Le Pen, the daughter of the founder) whose voters today come equally from the Communist Party (Front National has become the party of the working class) and from the most conservative part of UMP
- Globally, the Left and the Right are close : the Left+Extreme Left and the Right and Extreme Right represents each around 50% of the vote and the results of national votes are always almost 50/50 (according to the French Constitution, only two candidates may run on the second round of Presidential elections)
- See the results of the 2012 Presidential elections, with the score and the mottos of the 10 candidates (and the most incredibles promises and statements...)
- Read my column about François Hollande "A quintessential Frenchman"
- More to come.....
||WARNING! This page (still under construction) is not a study of the political situation of other countries. Its aims is only to underscore a few facts, well-known in Europe but maybe not everywhere else.
- In Belgium,
- the major issue is to remain a country when it is so deeply split between two communities : in the North 6 million Flemish-speakers ("flamands"), in the South 4 million French-speakers ("wallons"), in between them, Brussels, de facto capital of Europe, with a population of 2 million, mostly French speakers.
- When Belgium was created in 1830 (i.e. recently!), the "wallons" were rich, industrialized and had the political power on the "flamand"s, poor and rural. Now it is the opposite and the rich, developed, enterprising "flamands" are sick and tired of (as they say) paying for the welfare state of the less dynamic "wallons". They want to go from a federation (as of today) to a confederation of two states and, for some of them, toward an independant "Flandre".
- In Spain
- in spite of all the efforts made by the Spanish state to transfer its powers to regions at least two regions have a very strong independentist movement : Catalunia (speaking Catalan instead of Spanish is mandatory) and the Basque country (were the terrorist group ETA is still active)
- Spain was a model for Europe : after 35 years of dictatorship, the "movida" of the 1970s made it one of the fastest-growing countries ; the 2009 crisis is hitting both the economy and the morale of Spaniards
- In Italy,
- one of the main issues is to improve the quality and the efficiency of the State
- another one is the North-South split, common to all European countries but certainly deeper in Italy and the LegaNord is a major party in Italy
- in the UK :
- European or not ? The only thing to know is that UK does not believe in the future of Europe : its only policy is to take advantage of it and be ready for any other policy (as long as it is consistent with the US policy....)
- regarding Europe, British policy has always been to prevent another country to dominate continental Europe (Spain with Philippe II, France with Napoleon or Germany with Guillaume II or Hitler) : the only reason UK joined the European Union was to avoid it to become anything politically strong : this is why De Gaulle opposed its admission in the 1960s and this it why UK supported the enlargement of Europe rather than its strengthening in the 1990s (read my colum about UK stepping aside in 2011)
- More to come...
A (short) history of French Socialism.
To understand French politics you must, as for any other country, go back to the historical roots of the political forces. During the Industrial Revolution in France (1840-1870), French thinkers developed a form of philosophy generally called "Socialisme Utopique" based on 18th Century concepts (Rousseau : "man is good, society makes him evil") turned into a new form (Proudhon : "property is a theft") with several attempts to build an "ideal society" by creating small Socialist communities in North America (Etienne Cabet) etc… Then came Karl Marx and French Socialists and Unions loved it : new concepts and a global explanation (remember : the French love theory more than facts).
At the end of the 19th Century, French Socialism was under the influence of Jules Guesde (1845-1922), a Communist before Communism existed. Then came Jean Jaurès (1859-1914) with everything the French love. He had a prestigious academic background, an ability to talk to workers on strike and quote Greek philosophers in Greek to them. He ate and drank too much and was idealistic (he tried, and failed, to stop the breaking of WW1 by trying to put together the French and the German Socialist parties) and analytic (he wrote a 5-volume Socialist History of the French Revoluion) etc.. He was murdered by a fanatic the first day of WW1. Between Guesde and Jaurès, French Socialism was torn between two attitudes, which still exist : a strict Marxist attitude (a strong state, no compromise with the "Bourgeoisie", unconditional support of the USSR, etc..) and a classical Social-Democrat attitude (typical of Scandinavian's).
In 1920, in a Congress of the French Socialist Party ("Congrès de Tours"), a split gave birth on one side to the Communist Party (revolutionary with Guesde and an unconditional ally of the USSR) and to the Socialist Party (reformist and faithful to Jaurès and later to Leon Blum).
The same thing happened in most European countries and, in some of them (like Germany or UK), the Socialist Party won and finally the Communist Party practically disappeared. In others, the Communist Party destroyed the Socialist Party (most Eastern European countries)and seized power. In France (like in Italy or Spain), both parties survived but the Socialist Party remained uncomfortable, with the feeling (fed by the Communists) of having betrayed the true values of Socialism. Conversely, in Germany, in the Bad Godesberg Congress in 1959, the SPD voted to get rid of them. In France, it never happened and it not close to happening.
This is why, when in power, all French Socialist leaders say, as loud as they can, horrible things to please their Left wing (François Hollande said : "I do not like the rich"), and try to do whatever is reasonable after having done a few stupid things to show that they are really faithful to the traditional Socialist values (François Hollande created a 75% (plus 8 to 12%) tax on high income).
The reason for that is that in the French Constitution, to win in national and legislative elections, you must get more than 50% of the vote, which forces the Socialist Party to an alliance with the Communist Party, under various names (Union de la Gauche, Discipline Républicaine, etc…).
When they are unhappy with them, the Communist call the Socialists "socio-traitres" ("social-traitors"), which makes them panic.
Always keep in mind that the Socialist can be reasonable statesmen and politicians, but they will always be careful not to be considered as traitors to the "values of the Left" (as proclaimed by the Communist Party) even when they do not believe in them any longer : this explains why François Mitterrand nationalized most of the financial and industrial sectors in 1981 (to privatize them a few years later); it will explain why François Hollande changed the retirement age from 62-63 back to 60 years old just to (probably) change it to 63 or 65 (or more) in a few months or years from now.
For the French Socialists, the most popular Socialist politicians have never been in power (Jean Jaurès) or only a few months (Pierre Mendès-France, Michel Rocard or Leon Blum) with very difficult relations with the Communists.
||This well-known caricature from the days of the Front Populaire (1936) shows how the Right Wing saw the alliance between the Communists, the Socialists and the Radicals (who, contrary to their name, are on the Centre left of the political span) : first the Socialist eats the Radical and then the Communist eats the Socialist!
About various Left-Wing issues ....
- If you want to know what the maximum level of income tax was in 2012, as a % of the income of the taxpayer, click here !
- More to come....
|To related pages : French attitudes, irksome France, Europe, etc...
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Rochefort writes articles and books about France and the French.
Order her books :
- "Joie de Vivre", Secrets of Wining, Dining and Romancing like the French, St.Martin's Press, New York, 2012
- "French Toast, An American in Paris
Celebrates The Maddening Mysteries of the French", St.Martin's Press,
New York, 1999
- "French Fried, The Culinary Capers
of An American in Paris", St.Martin's Press, New York, 2001
Toast - Heureuse comme une Américaine en France",
Ramsay, Paris 2005
More on Harriet's books (excerpts, upcoming
events, testimonials, etc..)
or separately, Harriet and Philippe speak
about Intercultural Difference: click
here for information.